Ages: 8-0 through 79-11 Testing Time: 5 to 15 minutes Administration: Individual Scoring: Manual Author: Cecil R. Reynolds
The Comprehensive Trail-Making Test–Second Edition; (CTMT2) is a standardized assessment that uses five visual search and sequencing tasks, called trails, that are heavily influenced by attention, concentration, resistance to distraction, and cognitive flexibility (or set-shifting). The basic task of the trails is to connect a series of stimuli (numbers, expressed as numerals or in word form, and letters) in a specified order as quickly as possible. The test’s primary uses include the evaluation and diagnosis of brain injury and other forms of central nervous system compromise. Other purposes include detection of frontal lobe deficits; problems with psychomotor speed, visual search and sequencing, and attention; and impairments in set shifting along with monitoring recovery from concussion and other forms of TBI. Neuropsychologists; clinical, counseling, school, and pediatric psychologists; occupational therapists; speech and language professionals; physical therapists; and others interested in objective testing of functionality in brain–behavior relationships would all benefit from using the CTMT2
New Features of the CTMT2
An updated normative sample is reflective of 2017 U.S. Census data for ages 8 through 79 years.
Two new composite indexes, Inhibitory Control (composed of Trails 1–3) and Set Shifting (Trails 4–5), are included in addition to the Total Composite Index (Trails 1–5). These indexes add clinical richness and assist both clinicians and researchers in evaluating the source and implications of low scores on the CTMT2.
Validity data relating the CTMT2 to the Wechsler intelligence scales’ indexes is included.
Enhanced validity data related to CTMT2 performance of persons with traumatic brain injury and the degree of initial injury as measured by the Glasgow Coma Scale are added.
Diagnostic accuracy analyses, which are considered the most rigorous techniques for establishing a test’s validity, are included. These analyses involve the computation of sensitivity and specificity indexes and receiver operating characteristic/area under the curve (ROC/AUC) statistics.
Technical and Statistical Characteristics The CTMT2 was normed on a sample of 1,904 participants from 38 states. Its raw scores (the time it takes to complete each trail in seconds) are converted to T scores having a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. The three composite scores can be derived by pooling the T scores from the individual trails. The Examiner’s Manual includes a discussion of the test’s theoretical and research-based foundation, standardization, administration and scoring procedures, normative tables, and extensive reliability and validity data.
The CTMT2’s internal consistency reliability coefficients are .89 for the Inhibitory Control Index, .79 for the Set-Shifting Index, and .92 for the Total Composite Index. Validity studies demonstrate the test’s ability to differentiate participants with a history of traumatic brain injury from those without even in post-rehabilitation samples, where use of just the Total Composite Index (TCI) resulted in sensitivity of .73, specificity of .71, and a ROC/AUC of .82.