Ages: 6-0 through 23-11 Testing Time: 20-30 minutes Administration: Individual
The fifth edition of this enduring test quickly identifies students with oral reading difficulties. The GORT-5 offers updated norms, an expanded age range, revised comprehension questions, and streamlined basal and ceiling rules that make administration easier and more efficient.
The test includes two equivalent forms, both of which contain 16 developmentally sequenced reading passages. The student reads these passages aloud and answers five questions about each one. The examiner records the student’s reading rate, deviations from the printed passages, and miscues. The Manual provides clear scoring guidelines and a system for analyzing miscues in four areas: Meaning Similarity, Function Similarity, Graphic/Phonemic Similarity, and Self-Correction. This miscue analysis system is helpful in designing interventions tailored to each student’s needs.
Free of gender and ethnic bias, the GORT-5 is widely used to identify students with poor oral reading proficiency, to pinpoint specific strengths and weaknesses, and to document reading progress in response to intervention.
New Features of the GORT-5
New normative data were collected in 2008-2010
Norms were extended upward to age 23 years, 11 months’
Basal and ceiling rules were streamlined to make administration easier and more efficient
Comprehension questions were completely revised, and studies were provided to show that the items are passage dependent
Reliability and validity studies were added
The overall look of the test was updated
Available Scores for the GORT-5
Rate. The Rate Score is derived from the amount of time in seconds taken by a student to read a story aloud.
Accuracy. The Accuracy Score is derived from the number of words the student pronounces correctly when reading the passage.
Fluency. The Fluency Score is a combination of the student’s Rate and Accuracy Scores.
Comprehension. The Comprehension Score is the number of
questions about the stories that the student answers correctly. The
open-ended format ensures that the items are passage dependent.
Oral Reading Index. The Oral Reading Index is a composite score
formed by combining students’ Fluency and Comprehension scaled scores.
Rate, Accuracy, Fluency, and Comprehension are reported as raw
scores, grade and age equivalents, percentile ranks, and scaled scores
having a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. The Oral Reading
Index is reported as a standard score based on a distribution having a
mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Percentile ranks are also
Reliability and Validity
For both forms, average internal consistency (content sampling) reliability coefficients exceed .90.
The alternate forms reliability coefficients for the Oral
Reading Index exceed .90. The average test-retest (time sampling)
coefficients for the ORI for the same form (e.g., Form A to A, Form B to
B) exceed .85.
The average test-retest (time sampling) coefficient for the ORI
for different forms (e.g., Form A to B and Form B to A) is .85.
Correlations of the GORT-5 scores with those of other well-known reading measures are large or very large in magnitude.
Binary classification studies indicate that the GORT-5 is able
to accurately identify students with reading difficulties (i.e.,
sensitivity = .82, specificity = .86, ROC/AUC = .92, cut score = 90, low
Considerable other validity evidence is provided in the manual.
The GORT-5 may be used for:
Identifying students with reading difficulties. The GORT-5 can
be used in identifying students who may need more intensive or explicit
instruction in reading in order to make adequate progress in reading
facility and/or comprehension.
Diagnosing reading disabilities. The test can be used as part of
a battery of tests for diagnosis of specific reading disabilities in
children through young adults.
Determining strengths and weaknesses. The GORT-5 can be used to
compare intra-individual reading skills (e.g., reading rate vs.
comprehension) and to help tailor interventions to the student’s
Evaluating students’ progress in reading. Having two equivalent
forms enables examiners to conduct pre-and post-intervention testing to
Conducting research. The GORT-5 is a standardized, norm-referenced test, making it suitable for use in reading research.