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Koppitz Developmental Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt Test - Second Edition (Koppitz-2)

Purpose: Assesses the ability to relate visual stimuli accurately to motor responses and to organize the drawing task independently

Ages: 5 to 85 years

Administration Time: 5-10 minutes

Scores: Standard Score, (called the Visual Motor Index), Percentile Ranks, T-scores, z-scores, Age Equivalents



The new Koppitz-2 is an extensive revision and extension of the Bender Gestalt Test for Young Children by Koppitz. For the first time, the Koppitz Developmental Scoring System has been normed on a nationally stratified, census matched sample of children and adults from throughout the United States. Although the same stimulus cards are used for both tests, the difference between the Bender Gestalt II and this test is in the scoring method; the Koppitz-2 is entirely quantitative while the Bender Gestalt II relies more on a qualitative scoring system. The new KOPPITZ–2 is ideal for use by OTs and psychologists. It is a highly reliable, valid measure of visual-motor integration skills. The age range has been extended to allow the evaluation of special education students through age 21 and to assist in the evaluation of the visual-motor integration deficits of the growing population of seniors. For older children and adults, both 2 and 3 dimensional drawings are now required that reveal subtle deficits in visual-motor integration processes. The KOPPITZ–2 requires the examinee to draw increasingly complex figures from a model (the Bender designs) on a plain sheet of white paper and to organize the task independently.

The KOPPITZ–2 assesses the ability to relate visual stimuli accurately to motor responses and to organize the drawing task independently. It does so using a less structured task than other tests of visual-motor integration, thereby providing a more ecologically sound approach to assessment of visual-motor integration skills relative to highly structured drawing tasks.

Use the KOPPITZ–2 to:

  • determine the presence and degree of visual-motor problems
  • identify candidates for remedial programs and visual-motor training
  • evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs and monitoring recovery following acute injury
  • monitor the progress of progressive degenerative disease processes that affect visual-motor integration skills
  • gather research regarding the visual-motor integration process

A special chapter of the Manual is devoted to the Koppitz Emotional Indicators (EIs) and their proper use. A specialized scoring form is provided just for this purpose to make scoring of the Koppitz EIs easy and objective but also to maintain them as a separate record from the Developmental Scoring System.

Key Features:

  • Time and cost efficient.
  • Maintains a developmental view of visual-motor integration and provides separate scoring systems for young children (ages 5-7 years) and older children and adults (ages 8 to more than 85 years).
  • Completely nonverbal and useful with individuals from widely varied cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
  • High reliability across age